SARS-COV-2 is a type of coronavirus that causes COVID-19 respiratory infection.


Facts

80% of cases are usually mild-moderate
15% of cases are severe
5% of cases are critical (must be treated in the ICU)

Increased number of severe cases and death are observed in people with the following comorbidities:

  • Heart disease
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Chronic pulmonary disease
  • Hypertension
  • Cancer
  • Age >60 years old

Elderly and immunocompromised people are more prone to COVID-19.


Symptoms

Symptoms vary from mild to severe airway infection, such as:

  • Fever
  • Breathing difficulties
  • Coughing
  • Sore throat

Mode of Transmission
  • This disease can be transmitted between humans
  • It is transmitted through droplet when coughing/sneezing
  • Air transmission is possible in certain conditions/activities that produce aerosol

Incubation Period

The incubation period ranges from 1 to 14 days, with an average of 5-6 days.

Situation Classification What to do Discharge Criteria
  • Exposed but no symptoms
  • History of contact with confirmed/probable COVID-19
Close Contact Case
  • Quarantine for 14 days
  • Observed by health workers via teleconsultation
  • No symptoms after 14 days of quarantine
  • If symptoms occur during quarantine, becomes Suspected Case
  • Exposed with symptoms
  • Symptoms occur during quarantine
Suspected Case
  • See a doctor
  • RT-PCR on day 1 AND day 2 when symptom occurs
  • ·Self-isolation while waiting for PCR result
  • Observed in outpatient care
  • RT-PCR 2x negative for 2 consecutive days (24 hr apart)
  • If positive, becomes Confirmed Case
Mild to severe flu-like-symptoms
  • Severe flu-like symptoms
  • Clinical state resembling COVID-19
  • Waiting for RT-PCR result
Probable Case
  • Self-isolation
  • Get tested (lab and chest X-ray)
  • Those living in the same house are treated as Close Contact Case
  • RT-PCR 2x negative for 2 consecutive days (24 hr apart)
  • If positive, becomes Confirmed Case
Positive RT-PCR Confirmed Case
  • See a doctor
  •  Self-isolation
  • Get tested (lab, chest X-ray, others as indicated)
  • Those living in the same house are treated as Close Contact Case
  • Hospital admission if symptoms worsen
1.        No symptoms

  • Self-isolation 10 days after positive RT-PCR result
  •  No need for another RT-PCR after isolation is over

2.       Mild-moderate symptoms

  • 10 days isolation + 3 days without symptoms
  • No need for another RT-PCR after isolation is over

3.       Severe symptoms

Hospital admission, can be discharged after 10 days, negative RT-PCR AND min. 3 days without symptoms


How to Prevent it?
  • Always wear a medical mask every time you go out of your house
  • Routinely wash your hands with soap and water
  • Always maintain a 2-meter physical distance with others
  • Do not go out if not necessary
  • Avoid crowds
  • Healthy lifestyle, get enough rest, balanced diet, mild physical activity, and bask in the sun

References:
  1. Pedoman Pencegahan dan Pengendalian Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Revisi ke-5. http://covid19.go.id/p/protokol/pedoman-pencegahan-dan-pengendalian-coronavirus-disease-covid-19-revisi-ke-5
  2. Protokol Tatalaksana COVID-19. Kementerian Kesehatan. Agustus 2020.

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